Total Value Definition
Core Value investors focus on buying companies at relatively low valuations on an absolute basis, in relation to the market or its peers, or in comparison to an individual stock's historical levels. These portfolios typically exhibit price-to-earnings, price-to-book and price-to-cash flow multiples below the S&P 500. In addition, secular revenue growth rates of the companies in these portfolios are frequently below market averages and their earnings tend to be more cyclical.
Deep Value investors employ a more extreme version of value investing that is characterized by holding the stocks of companies with extremely low valuation measures. Often these companies are particularly out-of-favor or in industries that are out-of-favor. Some investors in this category are known for agitating for changes such as new management, a merger, or the spin-off of a subsidiary.